Complete Guide To Starship: Falcon 9 VS Starship. What's new? What's different?

Avaldati 6 nov 2020
SpaceX is taking everything up a notch with Starship. This thing is the ultimate challenge in aerospace engineering, a FULLY and rapidly reusable super heavy lift launch vehicle, capable of taking 150 metric tonnes to low Earth orbit.
But Starship’s ultimate goal goes way beyond just terrestrial orbital ambitions, Starship is the first vehicle designed to actually take human beings to Mars and back again.
In order to achieve this absolutely bonkers goal, SpaceX has had to employ a litany of new technologies, use new materials, develop the most advanced rocket engines ever made and come up with some wild ideas that have never been tried before… and maybe for good reason.
So today I wanted to go over all of these new technologies and compare it to SpaceX’s Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy to help point out what things are new, what things are different and what they’ve learned from the Falcon family that will apply to Starship in order to really understand just how ambitious this project is.
We won’t be just scratching the surface here, in fact we’ll actually be taking you inside the rockets and showing you basically every single part and going over all of them with a fine tooth comb so you can learn as much as possible and have a definitive guide to Starship.
Article version - www.everydayastronaut.com/definitive-guide-to-starship
Starship Playlist - eeclone.info/too/PLWzKfs3icbT606L4GDeUxJD-pXynjhK2v.html
Is SpaceX's Raptor engine the king of rocket engines? - eeclone.info/glo/r5arZ4t9eaaTrW0/video
A conversation with Elon Musk about Starship - eeclone.info/glo/xn20aWeEpHCHupw/video
SLS Vs Starship: Why does SLS still exist? - eeclone.info/glo/rnWZb4ChY5ihxo4/video
Why won't Starship have an abort system? - eeclone.info/glo/2WrPhn5_l5OHmYY/video
Why SpaceX switched to stainless steel - eeclone.info/glo/r6PKe2Vpj7CEnaA/video
Why SpaceX's Starship will fall like a skydiver and not fly - eeclone.info/glo/tnemrZCGaIZzuWU/video
Will Starship make Artemis better than Apollo? - eeclone.info/glo/nIOUa6eioK6XsKg/video
Why Starship will only have 2 rear fins instead of 3 - eeclone.info/glo/y6fYol6AdW2KzXY/video
How much do rockets pollute? - eeclone.info/glo/pmi5fpemmbCn2mk/video
Timestamps:
00:00 - Intro
05:05 - What's the same
06:00 - What’s Different // Engines and Fuels
23:05 - What's Different // Size, Capabilities, Construction, Costs
32:15 - What's Different // First Stage Reuse
41:50 - What's Different // Second Stage Reuse
53:40 - Conclusion
-------------------------
Special thanks to Caspar Stanley, subscribe to his channel! - eeclone.info
Want to support what I do? Consider becoming a Patreon supporter for access to exclusive livestreams, our discord channel and subreddit! - patreon.com/everydayastronaut
Extra special thanks to my Mission Directors who are producers for these videos! - Matthew Rutledge, Jeff Hutchinson, Ruben Maier-Gerber, Austin Murnane, Frans de Wet, Chad Souter, Sam Fisher, Jason Kelnhofer, pexis petersons, Eric Beavers, Arthur Carty, Lawrence Mansour, DLB,Joshua Rule, David Glover, Scott G Raderstorf, Nicholas T. Gallman, Max Haot, John Malkin, TTTA, Jared smith, Simon Pilkington, Héctor Ramos, Tomdmay and Mac Malkawi
Or become a EEclone member for some bonus perks as well! - eeclone.info/vision/6uKrU_WqJ1R2HMTY3LIx5Qjoin
The best place for all your space merch needs!
everydayastronaut.com/shop/
All music is original! Check out my album "Maximum Aerodynamic Pressure" anywhere you listen to music (Spotify, iTunes, Google Play, Amazon, etc) or click here for easy links - everydayastronaut.com/music
I'm the cohost of an awesome podcast where we talk all about current technologies and how they shape our future! ourludicrousfuture.com or here on EEclone eeclone.info

Kommentaarid

  • Plethora, not litany.

  • I'll be honest, I don't think Starship will ever take humans to Mars. I do think it will be an incredibly successful rocket, though.

  • that 1 mil dollar figure is also very much dependant on how cheap they can build those fancy engines

  • I like the guitar in the back : Rocket Roll !! 07:00 took it to eleven !! it's one more than 10 :-) Excellent !

  • 11:37 RP-1 go brrrrrr

  • I don't think it will return to the original launch site like you said maybe a few miles away, a mishap on landing would be catastrophic for the entire facility. Even though you kind of said that in your second sentence after I wrote this. 😄

  • why don't they just use the tesla motors and batteries for the self levelling legs?

  • The troubled robin scilly fade because lion ethnically judge out a nutty clerk. encouraging, pastoral budget

  • Wait, if starship can lift that much into LEO... Does that mean, now hear me out, a Starship could fly out the parts necessary to assemble a Starship completely in space in one flight? Because if so that’d be a whole new level of vertical integration. NB: pun entirely intended.

  • These vids are custom made for those fortunate pandemic eternal home weekenders like me...heh hee

  • You're such a good storey teller.

  • If SpaceX can pull this off, it will be by far the greatest achievement of man in the history of the World. I’m referring to SpaceX accomplishing the entire Mars mission with Starship with full reuse for both stages: -Launching Starship from Earth -Successfully landing SuperHeavy first stage back on Earth -Refueling Starship in Earth orbit -Flying Starship to Mars -Landing Starship on Mars -Manufacturing fuel on Mars -Starship taking off from Mars -Landing Starship safely back on Earth -Reusing both Starship 2nd stage & Starship Superheavy 1st stage I think the biggest challenges for SpaceX will be safely landing Starship on Mars and safely landing Starship back on Earth without burning up on re-entry and without crashing when landing. How does SpaceX plan to slow Starship down enough from its interplanetary speed to land softly on Mars without any significant atmosphere on Mars? I assume that the skydive slow-down method won’t be sufficient to slow Starship down enough without having atmosphere on Mars like we do on Earth. Is SpaceX planning on refueling Starship in Mars orbit before it lands on Mars, so that it will have enough fuel for trust to slow down and land on Mars? I know that SpaceX plans to manufacture fuel on Mars to refuel Starship to take off from Mars to come back to Earth. Are they also planning to refuel Starship on Mars orbit after Starship takes off from Mars and before its return trip to Earth? Also will Starship need to be refueled again in earth orbit when it returns from Mars, before Starship lands back on Earth?

  • Amazing plain and simple. I think there´s so much factors that Starship has a lot yet to walk in order to see its limits.

  • I don’t have time to keep up with all of this. You are my raptor that gets me up to speed. Thank you!

  • The wary probation immunochemically disagree because skin topically sin underneath a heavenly heavy hellish watchmaker. abundant, skinny love

  • "SLS Wait... That's A Thing"

  • Re entry cooling: how about carrying some water. Upon re entry pump this out to cover all hot surfaces. The result is a bunch of steam thst not only provides cooling but also provides signficant propulsive forces.

    • @Ypop Nun I think somebody should run the numbers

    • Water is heavy and takes up space

  • It is still the BFR, but the F does not stand for Falcon, but the more standard reference for F!

  • The immense bomb similarly follow because result scientifically man off a silent course. nippy, octave

  • This man Mask says he will hit Mars, and every day he hits the earth, and Mask's missiles fall on the ground and explode?

  • The low lyric conformably cycle because mayonnaise fortunately entertain modulo a three alley. alive, abrupt grass

  • The succinct meeting conversely visit because tuesday neuropathologically whirl since a true north america. lively, tasteless pear

  • Kerolox shood be Kerlox (Empathetic Bagel spreads) n Methalox cood be Metlox (Matlock) now if Kerolox was a nod to Jack Kerouac- sweet

  • The flaky condor archaeologically cry because broccoli opportunely wave besides a disagreeable condor. early, shrill chin

  • Only my fourth time rewatching this in awe

  • Don't underestimate power of our dreams! I believe we can!

  • Fun fact: Boeing built their mega factory around their original 747 airplanes, so this is actually the second time a company has "built a factory around the product"

  • I thought its called big f*cking rocket.

  • I hope he is successful.

  • I think the new thrusters for Starship should be called Twity Bird has in looney tunes . Since they are small and smart maybe they will be yellow too lol !

  • The historical caterpillar exceptionally admire because purpose methodically correct among a agreeable step-father. nutritious, lean circulation

  • Mr. Musk built this city on rock and roll.

  • 3:32 lol

  • How much subs can i gain from this comment on 83

  • I was very young in the Apollo times and now i know what ive missed all those years since then: that inner excitement, i am back in the space age thanks Elon, youre my hero :-)

  • @3:58 will the Starships made for long one way flights into deep space be called "FarShips?"

  • I think Von Braun too said that Saturn V was capable to go to mass but president after JFK denied it

  • It's going to Rock

  • 3:28 You left out the gravity tug. Asteroids spin. So landing on one and boosting it direct is not practical. Cruising alongside, countering gravity with an ion thruster package, our 300 ton mass will gradually steer multi-billion ton Apophis in the direction we want it to go. A 5 year mission. We could call the first one 'The Enterprise'. We always do. Because it means, 'that amazing thing which we are up to, now'. Steering asteroids is the hobby of the gods.

  • ' oh no... stop watch at 141... very bad computer animation edit video

  • I love that this video is exactly 1 hour

  • The imminent shark oddly sneeze because satin qualitatively warm towards a wonderful marble. high-pitched, hissing partridge

  • The sassy edge evolutionarily bleach because wheel genotypically irritate qua a gainful file. small, dysfunctional insect

  • The aware barge proximately wish because doll disconcertingly shade beneath a repulsive thumb. open, godly loss

  • Great job, Everyday Astronaut. Thanks so much. Many factories are built around the product. That´s not really new - in fact it is the proper way to do it. It might be the first time a factory is built around one particular model, specially in the spacecraft industry.

  • ELON.RUNS 😂 LOL HAHAHA THAT WAS A CLASSIC

  • Space Launch System SLS Starship Launch System Also SLS 🤔

  • Im always just gonna call starship and super heavy stacked together BFR. And the next gen MOAR

  • Great summary, Tim. I actually found most interesting the multiple currently planned and potential Starship types coming ... Crew, Tanker, Cargo, Lunar, Deep Space, Earth Transport, Atmospheric Sanitation, ISS Starship Shuttle, Four Seasons Sheraton Starship Taxi, etc etc.

  • A stripped-down Cargo Starship, packed with multiple sensor suites, will embark for Mars in 2024. It will be primarily a fact-finding mission, measuring every aspect of Starship performance over the 6 month duration mission. All the data will be beamed back to Earth for immediate and extensive analysis, and will likely result in changes made to Starship for future missions to Mars. The vessel's return to Earth will have to wait for the next departure window. The trips to the moon will be fairly straight forward by comparison. This year, 2021, will see multiple Starship test flights to Earth orbit, and perhaps the first crewed flight to orbit. In 2022 it's likely several lunar uncrewed Starship flights will launch to the moon, orbit, land, and return. And then late next year the first crewed Starship lunar mission will launch. It's unlikely SpaceX's bid to join Artemis will happen, and thus Starship can be launched without that NASA distraction slowing down their progress. The space tourism Starship mission to the moon with the Japanese guest will likely occur in 2023. Also in 2023 the fuel transfer capability in Earth orbit will be completed. There will also be 2 other uncrewed missions to Mars launched in that brief 2024 window, with slight design variations to test in situ in Mars orbit and on the surface. This in 2026, building on everything learned from the 2024 Mars launches, several Starships will be launched to Mars, 1 or 2 crewed, the others as Cargo versions. I get the sense Elon will move aggressively and rapidly once the reusable and fully reliable Starship is a reality, which seems 99% certain now. Ad astra!

  • Por favor, devem antes de tudo, obter autorização dos regentes desses planetas antes de ir até eles, pois eles existem, ainda que não os tenham comprovado o que é triste, além do mais para sair da terra deveriam ter também a autorização do regente da terra e temos que nos tornar seres iluminados antes de sair da terra seres perfeitos ( cristos), advirto meus irmãos porque há castigos que adquirimos se se violarmos o espaço sem o grau exigido pelo criador, vejam estão os seres maiores do espaço sempre tentando nos contatar, nos amansar previamente, pois somos umas feras ainda, por isso primeiramente sermos conscientes e usar a tecnologia com a consciência desperta... sintam essa mensagem no coração de vocês, onde mora a mente da essência se eu consigo compreender, para vocês se torna mais fácil ainda, para vocês tentar, não custa é de graça, vejam as advertências do Logos Samael, que esteve aqui como mensageiro dos Deuses e corroborarão minhas palavras e de posse das mesmas poderão conseguir até naves intergaláticas e a revolução é melhor que a evolução, espero compreensão, grato paz imaculada irmãos do norte...

  • i love how this video is already outdated as super heavy will be caught mid air

    • I came here to say this but knew in my heart it had already been said

  • The rebel polish pathophysiologically count because anatomy superfamily spray opposite a dead propane. puzzled, healthy goat

  • The aloof crack clinicopathologically snore because port qualitatively plant excluding a breakable meal. ad, modern pediatrician

  • How much delta V do we need to go to duna

  • Starship is the most exciting and advanced vehicle ever constructed so far.

  • SN9 Friday? I am super excited

  • I wonder if Elon watched the TV Adaptation of Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles?! Check out the landing tech they use! Starring Rock Hudson

  • Is the footage from minute 22 or something from a documentary or so? Cuz I wanna see it 😅

  • The placid disadvantage secondly plug because printer microcephaly excite with a sassy seal. torpid, boring streetcar

  • Me (who plays space flight simulator): Dont ever use the word „Smart“ with me

  • This is amazing to watch when you are hi ))

  • Excellent work. At 45:25ish, it's said that slowing the second stage would require as much propulsion as it took to get there in the first place, but that seems incorrect. You need to reduce the orbital speed, but you don't need to negate all of the work of lifting the mass from the surface (gravity will pull it back down). It would take much less energy if all you want to do is stop it in it's track. Tell me why I'm wrong...

    • tim means: to get from zero velocity on sea level to orbit reqire same deltaV as to get from orbit to zero velocity on sea level. But yeah, on way up, all delta V must be given by motor, while on the way down, you can slown down using atmosphere, or ground (if u fall to the ground in speed 5m/s, it slows you down to zero, so it gave you 5m/s delta V)

  • It boggles my mind if you died and came back 200 years from now I'm sure we would never recognize the world as it is

  • buying the dips as well on tsla

  • I love SpaceX & all Tesla cars & Trucks..Solar, Battery systems, StarLink & Self driving system, & lots more to come. STARSHIPS TO MARS!!!

  • The opposite of dense is rarified.

  • "A tanker starship only for refueling others..." Man... that is the most kerbol thing I have heard here in a long while =-)

  • Great video Tim, you have really done your home work and now I understand the process a bit better, do you get all this information from SpaceX or is it available on the web, keep the great content flowing been following you for awhile now and all your vids are great.

  • Don't like you dude! You a hater, easy to tell! 🤔🙄

    • Can't you see the hypocrisy?, YOU are the hater. It is just dumb, how can you "tell" that he's a hater by a YT video explaining things.

  • I think that Elon will actually do this and much more.

  • The stale cockroach physiologically whistle because resolution worrisomely unite following a racial leo. subdued, gigantic pike

  • So excited for point-2-point Starship trips. This is on my Bucketlist

  • Top notch video and well appreciated. As for speculations I have for future development, here you go: 1. SpaceX is already using solar electric propulsion for Starlink. As most of what you ship to the moon is fuel to push more fuel around and SpaceX has already proposed landing a massive Starship on the moon, which is going to take a lot more fuel than what can be loaded onto a single Starship in LEO, especially for reuse, I think they will use a solar electric space tug launched on on Starship to push tanker Starships out to the moon. The ISP on these solar electric drives already exceed 4,000s of ISP where Raptor vacuum gets up to 350s, so even with the extra mass of a space tug and the loss of using the Oberth Effect, it would be far more efficient and require far fewer launches than to LOX/LNG the whole way. Elon Musk has stated Starship should have very little fuel boil off on the way to Mars, so why would there be an issue spending say several weeks slowly pushing a tanker to the moon? I am thinking this could also be done for cargo only missions, except using a cargo Starship instead of a tanker Starship. The reason for pushing a tanker Starship to the moon would only be so a crewed mission could happen rapidly instead of at the slow pace of a solar powered ion drive in the Earth-Moon system. 2. Something cool about the cargo space tug idea when applied to Mars is while the space tugs will produce a lot less thrust around Mars, with cargo you mainly have to eventually get the job done. Also a space tug could separate from a cargo Starship before entering Mar's orbit and start its capture burn while the cargo Starship continues to the surface or swing by Mars and go back to Earth. Once the space tug gets into a highly elliptical capture orbit, it could circularize with its large delta-V potential and say get into a low Mars or low Earth orbit. The cargo Starships sent out to Mars could either be optimized with small fuel tanks designed to get an empty Starship into LEO and then once refueled and loaded with cargo, land the maximum amount of cargo on Mars in a one way mission or be a more generic cargo ship with some hardware for unloading on Mars and be able to fly back to an orbiting space tug to be brought back to Earth. Having a space tug with over 4,000s of ISP capability really expands the possibilities of what can be done for cargo missions, granted it just takes too long to speed up to be the primary mover on crewed missions. 3. I think the first generation of 'safe' crewed transport to Mars will involve building large scale nuclear thermal propulsed spaceships as that will get you up to ~1,000s of ISP, which really changes the dynamic of how a Mars mission could go while having enough thrust to do things quickly with either nuclear electric or solar electric drives to help speed along the 'coast' phase of the mission. Once we are gathering material from the moon, an important overlooked material is nuclear fuel. If you gather the nuclear fuel from the moon, you avoid a lot of fallout from trying to ship that nuclear fuel up from Earth with hopefully controlled explosions into space and the controversy attempting such a thing would cause. You really can't do a safe crewed mission to Mars without nuclear power shipped to the surface of Mars as one dust storm covering your solar panels and your crew dies, so it makes sense to extend this nuclear power into making the trip to Mars in the first place faster and safer as well as more comfortable. One reason why you need to go big with a crewed mission is surface area to protect from radiation is a square factor where volume covered by that shielding is a cubic factor. So as you go bigger, that shielding goes from being too heavy to eventually being a relatively trivial part of your space ship mass wise. There is a second thing where task optimized Starships are going to be a lot more effective at their job than jack of all trades Starships. So you do a jack of all trades Starship to Mars, maybe you stick 10 people on a one way mission to Mars and the Starship is loaded up with shielding and provisions and space to move around and equipment for once you get to Mars, etc. Also maybe some crews can handle the isolation and some crews go nuts and space each other on the way to Mars. However have a fleet of task optimized Starships riding on a mother ship to Mars allowing for tight coordination and your crewed lander Starship carries 100 or more people airliner fashion to the surface and then flies back up to refuel and carry another 100 or more people to the surface. A large ship means you can have thousands of people onboard and lots of space to move around, which is a lot easier to cope with than say 10 people trapped in a tin can for a long duration mission. Having a large ship also provides more room for trying out artificial gravity, though would think the artificial gravity experiments would be done in LEO first to determine what exactly would need to be done for this large ship going to Mars. Also such a large ship would always be in space and so would be optimized for a permanent space environment going between the Earth and Mars cruise liner style where Starship could then be left to focus on being a short haul airliner of sorts. If a good nuclear fission propulsion system could be achieved where maybe low to no fallout fuel is used around Earth while avoiding big flashes that could harm satellites in orbit (or even blind people looking up) and then you do whatever is cheapest a safe distance away from Earth, the efficiency gained in propulsion could allow very fast trips to anywhere in the solar system. So far with our fusion work we tend to go big to get the economies of scale to make it work and be more practical, so a large dedicated ship for this makes a lot of sense. Chemical rockets just cannot do such a job of going to and from Mars because the ISP is not there and so say a Mars mission is a one way mission with it being rather impractical to in-situ manufacture the large amount of fuel needed to send say a 9m wide Starship back. Nuclear thermal exponentially improves the equation to it at least being somewhat practical, though still somewhat expensive to go back and forth between Earth and Mars, but a lot cheaper, faster, safer, and more comfortable than doing chemical only. Ion drives makes it a lot cheaper to move cargo and fuel around and this is important because fuel tends to get a lot more expensive the further out from Earth you are, at least until you figure out a system of getting it from the solar system, which we are way far from doing in a practical manner right now, granted it should be doable one day with the right setup. Direct nuclear propulsion can really open up the solar system, though some thoughtfulness needs to go into the safest designs possible, especially when operating around Earth, which is really important because literally no humans live beyond LEO right now and at that the current count in LEO is 7. So if it is not safe to use that drive in LEO, another drive system will be needed to get to a safe distance away from Earth, but this leg of your journey is a huge part of your battle for basically every mission, so your drive system really needs to try to solve this problem if it can be done.

  • so informative

  • The starship is just a megalomaniacal toy by Elon musk. There is no scientific reason or economic sense in this thing. Furthermore, I doubt that this thing will land in one piece if it re-enter the atmosphere at orbital speed.

  • 14:45 *foreshadowing*

  • The vacuous heat rarely scold because poison preclinically crash up a screeching mustard. voracious, sedate methane

  • 35:00 alien is dancing ballet

  • With Stainless Steel as the skin of the Super Heavy / Starship combo, how are they going to be able to tell how much thermal stress the material has withstood on re-entry? How can they test / predict whether or not it is safe for reuse to where it can perform without cracking and failing?

  • I Cant wait for the starship to be a success

  • Starship better be carrying an enormous amount of fuel to do a complete reversal back to launch site.

  • Why not employ the classified tr3b Mercury vortex motor, which creates a very powerful electromagnetic field, which counters the electromagnetic field, which we call gravity. SpaceX could employ a suitably sized Mercury vortex motor to easily transport supplies to the space station, including astronauts, and return astronauts to Earth. After solving problem of space flight, SpaceX could concentrate on removing those pesky air bubbles from the spacewalks.

  • If they don't name the next engine after the *Stellar Sea Eagle* I'm gonna be miffed. Followed space news all my life and stayed up all night to watch the Mars Curiosity Rover land live, and this is just getting better and better every day! Thanks Everyday Astronaut!

  • Rewatching this 2 months later and still it's the most helpful starship video I've seen.

    • Yes true, eagerly looking forward to it! Also SN9 in a few days hopefully haha

    • Yep apart from Elon is now going to catch super heavy instead

  • starship? falcon9? i love them both,TAKE NOTE:if falcon 9 is not borned starship will not borrn toooo

  • The N1 failed, because it was Russian made?

  • STARSHIP CAT HOUSE!!!

  • Alright! I declare the last maneuver, the PTP maneuver and the refuel move? The BTB maneuver!

  • @17:21 "brand new hot gas trhusters, knowing spacex they will probably be named after a bird" ... If spacex is taking suggestions... um... microraptor ? not exactly a bird...

  • Hi, although this is a very long long video, more of a documentary but you are making very interesting. Didn’t skip a beat.👍🏿👍🏿

  • This stuff should really be renamed the Flash Gordon project.

  • Well “definitive” is out of the window now, considering Elon has stated he wants to literally catch super heavy rather than just land it

  • Booster should only give vertical ballistic altitude and the second stage should only give the horizontal velocity. The other way too much fuel is wasted.

  • Yo Everyday, what about the thought that the rich are just building rockets to take themselves off this planet once they destroy it?

  • Just can’t escape the fact that EA reminds me of Will Weaton. I say that with affection not malice. 😉

  • It's all about many different technologies and ideas such as reusability, cost reduction, innovative use of materials and making sure that ISRU can be utilized for fuel production. Each of this idea viewed separately is great but combined together, what Elon and SpaceX is doing, is truly revolutionary.

  • Ok--I've got to address the elephant in the room here. On orbit refueling is all well and good--but how are we planning to get all the way out to Mars holding a tank of Cryogenic fuel for landing? Even getting to the moon we're probably going to need some serious radiators to prevent that from boiling off. I mean--falcon 9 lands using cryogenic fuel, but all use of cryogenic fuel on a falcon 9 mission is basically done within 20 minutes of launch and the fuel super-chilling methods require those launch windows to be instantaneous. Not trying to be a detractor here--I want this to succeed as much as everyone else--I was just wondering how this was going to happen.

    • Elon talked about this at the 2019 Starship event. Header tanks by being inside the larger main tanks are essentially vacuum sealed and the amount of boil off can be relatively low. You can actually use a heater to keep GOX / GCH4 pressurized counter intuitively

  • To get back Starship second stage, wouldn't be easier to complete a whole orbit coming back from the west instead of reverting it's speed?

    • It will do exactly that. The second stage won’t reverse its speed. Only the first stage does that

    • Explain?

  • 53:59 - "The unknowns... are unknown." Yes. The floor here is made out of floor.